Neuritis (Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome)
What Is the Tarsal Tunnel?
The tarsal tunnel – the source of tarsal tunnel syndrome - is a narrow space that lies on the inside of the ankle next to the ankle bones, known as the tarsal tunnel. The tunnel is covered with a thick ligament (the flexor retinaculum) that protects and maintains the structures contained within the tunnel—arteries, veins, tendons and nerves. One of these structures is the posterior tibial nerve, which is the focus of tarsal tunnel syndrome.
What Is Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome?
Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a compression, or squeezing, on the posterior tibial nerve that produces symptoms anywhere along the path of the nerve running from the inside of the ankle into the foot.
Tarsal tunnel syndrome is similar to carpal tunnel syndrome, which occurs in the wrist. Both disorders arise from the compression of a nerve in a confined space.
Causes of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by anything that produces compression on the posterior tibial nerve, such as:
• A person with flat feet is at risk for developing tarsal tunnel syndrome,
because the outward tilting of the heel that occurs with fallen arches can
produce strain and compression on the nerve.
• An enlarged or abnormal structure that occupies space within the
tunnel can compress the nerve. Some examples include a varicose vein,
ganglion cyst, swollen tendon or arthritic bone spur.
• An injury, such as an ankle sprain, may produce inflammation and
swelling in or near the tunnel, resulting in compression of the nerve.
• Systemic diseases, such as diabetes or arthritis, can cause swelling,
thus compressing the nerve.
Symptoms of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Patients with tarsal tunnel syndrome experience one or more of the following symptoms:
• Tingling, burning or a sensation similar to an electrical shock
• Pain, including shooting pain
Symptoms are typically felt on the inside of the ankle and/or on the bottom of the foot. In some people, a symptom may be isolated and occur in just one spot. In others, it may extend to the heel, arch, toes and even the calf.
Sometimes the symptoms of the syndrome appear suddenly. They are often brought on or aggravated by overuse of the foot, such as in prolonged standing, walking, exercising or beginning a new exercise program.
It is important to seek early treatment if any of the symptoms of tarsal tunnel syndrome occur. If left untreated, the condition progresses and may result in permanent nerve damage. In addition, because the symptoms of tarsal tunnel syndrome can be confused with other conditions, proper evaluation is essential so that a correct diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment initiated.
Diagnosis of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
The foot and ankle surgeon will examine the foot to arrive at a diagnosis and determine if there is any loss of feeling. During this examination, the surgeon will position the foot and tap on the nerve to see if the symptoms can be reproduced. He or she will also press on the area to help determine if a small mass is present.
Advanced imaging studies may be ordered if a mass is suspected or if initial treatment does not reduce the symptoms. Studies used to evaluate nerve problems—electromyography and nerve conduction velocity (EMG/NCV)—may be ordered if the condition shows no improvement with nonsurgical treatment.